Tafsir of Surah Al Baqarah 183: "Reach Fasting Taqwa"

Ramadan is the month of Qur'an. Probably in the Quran, Muslims, and shot at the belt to check your happiest and meditate on the contents of the Quran Al Karim. Yes, if the contents of the Koran, which receive most of the activities of Muslims in this holy month. Since Muslims can not get the role of the Qur'an as a guide for life and a guide on the right track.

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ
"Ramadan is the month of revelation of the Qur'an Qur'an guides for men and interpretation of instructions and an element of differentiation (between good and evil)." (Surah al-Baqara: 185)

This noble effort is a verse that is often recited, sung and recorded by the Muslims, the verse in Surah Al Baqarah 183, which is the fast start. Noble verse reads:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
"O you who believe, fasting obligatory for you as necessary for those before you so that you become pious" (Surah al-Baqara: 183)

This verse contains many valuable lessons about fasting. We peel the deep wisdom behind this noble verse

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا
"O you who believe!"

In this verse it is known that lafadz madaniyyah or back in Medina (AH, s), while those starting with accident ayyuhan Ya Ya, or son of Adam, a fresh or makkiyyah in Mecca [1].
Imam Tabari said that the intent of this verse: "O those who believe in Allah and His Messenger, and undertakes to justify belief in it" [2]. Ibn Kathir interprets this verse: "Allah's word is meant for people that the human race and that is a command that is executed quickly think" [3].

From this verse we see a clear link between the fast to their faith. Almighty Allah ordained fasting for those who have faith, had the Almighty God for the souls that have been fasting, faith in him. And fasting is a sign of the perfection of their faith.
So what is faith?

The language of faith is the faith or to justify. As in the verses of the Quran:

وَمَا أَنْتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَنَا وَلَوْ كُنَّا صَادِقِينَ
"And you do not believe us even though we were right" (Surah Yusuf: 17)

Messenger Shallallahu'alaihi expressly wasallam explain the importance of faith in a hadith:

 الإيمان أن تؤمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله واليوم الآخر وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره
"Faith is believing in Allah, believe in His angels, to believe in his books, his followers believe, believe in the Day of Resurrection, we believe Qadhi and Qadr, both good and evil" [4]

Then the six points that should be of people who believe they are entitled. So people may be reluctant to offer worship to God alone, and serve other gods before God, his faith is unquestionable perfection. People who prefer mengimana Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, or leave it, forge Sunnah tuntunkan cult that placed the perfection of his faith into question. Those who do not believe in angels, I do not think that the apocalypse to come, I do not believe in fate believes his faith is unquestionable perfection.

But do not you think the faith only by faith in your heart. Imam ash-Shafi'ia said:

وكان الإجماع من الصحابة والتابعين من بعدهم ممن أدركناهم أن الإيمان قول وعمل ونية ، لا يجزئ واحد من الثلاثة بالآخر
"To my knowledge, has the consensus of the Companions and Taabi'een that faith in the form of words, gestures and intentions (action of the heart), not one of three things is to reduce" [5].

It can not be justified in those who profess faith, but are reluctant to lead the prayer, are reluctant zakat to pay out the nets and other actions. Or the woman said. "Although I have not been dealt with, it is important that is on my heart," If the faith is true for "veiled" to see the liver and the veil and wear Islamic dress properly. Therefore, the practice of fasting by external religion.

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ
"It is mandatory for the fast"

Al Qurtubi interprets this verse: "When Allah, the Almighty, is the need to refer mukallaf Qisas and reflected in the above verse, Allah Almighty also mentioned the obligation of fasting and undertake IT, there is no disagreement on the need." [6].
But you know, in the early development of Islam, fasting is not mandatory, but recommended. As the verse stated:

فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ فَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَهُ وَأَنْ تَصُومُوا 
خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
 "So who of you is ill or traveling (and broken), then (it wajiblah fast), how many days in the other day. It for people who mismanagement (if not. Fast) Ransom (the) the feeding of poor people who violate the law (fasting), it would be better for him, fast and better for you if you knew "(Surah al-Baqarah: 184).

Ibn Kathir says the case, said: "Finally, the abolition of the law (fasting dianjurkannya) for people who do not travel, true, and a healthy body, namely the fasting required by the verse:

فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ
"Who of you is the month (Ramadan), fasting is obligatory for him" (Surat al-Baqara: 185) [7] ".
Fasting requires Bertahapnya works based on the condition that Aqeedah of the Muslims. Sheikh Ali Hassan al-Halabi said hafizhahullah-.. "The obligation of fasting was delayed until the second year of Hijrah, when friends were in bertauhid symbols and the glorification of Islam an assignment agreement in phases as stable as the first choice to fast or not, but always recommended" [8].
From there a valuable lesson for us, that the obedience of the servant of his Lord was created directly proportional to the degree of monotheism.
 كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ
"If necessary, for those before you"

Imam Al-Alusi said in his commentary. "What is a" people first ", the prophets of the time of Prophet Adam Alaihissalam" provided that the general maushul ISIM Ibn Abbas and Mujahid who are the people of the book. According to Al-Hasan, and how problems like this Sya'bi are Christians.

This verse points to the existence of legal focus, PEP and comfort of the other individual (s). Because it is a difficult case, as do a normal human, it will be the only standard.

Muhammad fasted humans permisalan people, if necessary, or the same term, or the same level "[9].

Po 'story says that fasting for the people, the people of Muhammad disyariatkannya fasting three days per month, as interpreted by Ibn Kathir in his commentary: "It is a story of Muadh Ibn Mas'ud, Ibn' Abbas, Atha, Qatada, announces Dhahak Mazahim am, meaning that fasting is only for an initial three days is required each month, so it is not by fasting during Ramadan disyariatkannya revoke States. There is also a story that the obligation to fast three days per month since the days of Noah until it is revoked by the Almighty God by fasting during Ramadan, "[10].

لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ 
"For lovers" 

La'alla says in the Qur'an has many meanings, including ta'lil (right) and tarajji mukhathab "Indal (people's expectations of the word). Ta'lil With a sense, we can the reason why fasting has to interpret necessary to the fasting person to Taqwa. Tarajji measure reach sense we can say that people who fasted hope to think through his fast [11].

Imam al-Tabari interprets this verse: "The point is that you should fear him (away) from eating, drinking and berjima" with women when the fast "[12].

Imam Al Baghawi extend these interpretations with the statement: "I mean, hopefully, have the reasons for fasting, because fasting Wasilah Taqwa As can dominate fasting and win Lust Lust Some commentators also noted that the intention: To be informed ... the joy that comes from eating, drinking and Jima "[13].

In Jalalain said tersely: "This means that you fear evil, because the fasting desire, which is a source of immorality can be overcome." [14].

The question now is when the fear of God?

In Arabic, Taqwa ittaqa yattaqi difficult to be cautious, careful means fear. After his ordination in the immoral intention of the alarm and fear fall vices. But the concept, fearing that the best definition of Habib Ben Al'Anazi Thalq is expressed:

العَمَلُ بِطَاعَةِ اللهِ، عَلَى نُوْرٍ مِنَ اللهِ، رَجَاءَ ثَوَابِ اللهِ، وَتَرْكِ مَعَاصِي اللهِ، عَلَى نُوْرٍ مِنَ اللهِ، مَخَافَةَ عَذَابِ اللهِ 
"Taqwa is the practice of obedience to God in the light of God (the argument), in the hope of God's forgiveness, the sinner in God's light (subjects), and the fear of Allah" [15]. 

So, the essence of piety. Cult dedicated bermuamalah out to do good, because he thought the proposal reward from Allah, and not on the family tradition, promises blind imitation, or the orientation of the world. Even the pious are always afraid of the things of Allah and His Messenger to do forbidden things as the argument that the terrible risks adzab recalls. From what we know that faith can not be achieved without God's light, the science of proof from the Quran and the Sunnah wa Shallallahu'alaihi. If a person meets these criteria, it pays to be a noble servant to his side:

إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ 
"Verily, the noblest in Allah, the pious among you" (Quran Hujurát: 13) 

Once you know the meaning of taqwa, the following declaration of a beautiful Sheikh Abdur-Rahman ibn Nasir rahimahullaah Sa'di in his commentary, the relationship between ketaqwaan Fasting is "Fasting is one of the main reasons ketaqwaan .. because the fasting person is commanded by God and away from the prohibition of a link is more common in fasting and devotion:
  1.  People who refrain from fasting is forbidden by God in the form of food, beverages Jima "and semisalnya. Since the human soul is a tendency, has everything. He left everything to be closer to God, and s expect" a reward from him. It is a form of godliness " 
  2. People who fasted trained to have to approach God, stay away from things that are loved by his thirst, when he was eating, in fact, able or drink unnoticed berjima, but I know that God which is 
  3. Refining the rapid movement of Satan in human blood, which is the influence of Satan. Consequently, failure to reduce 
  4. Fasting is usually able to reproduce the obedience to God, and it is likely pious 
  5. By fasting, the rich feel the pain of hunger. Doing so, he has more concern for people who Faqir. And it is a divine being "[16]
May our fasting is a testimony of God our faith in him. Hopefully lead us quickly towards our degrees Taqwa, a servant to make one in the eyes of Allah Ta'ala.
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